Strawberry DNA Extraction

Strawberry DNA Extraction

Recently we had another lab in our Biology class which was very cool. It was a Strawberry DNA extraction Lab.

 

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This lab was very cool and our teacher decided to postpone the test for it which was great. I saw this lab under the files section of Canvas for a while now and was wondering when we would work on it.

 

During the lab we mashed up a Strawberry and added a buffer which we created to it. The buffer got rid of everything except the DNA. Then we used a gauze and transfers the remains of the Strawberry into a test tube. We added alcohol to the test tube and spun it and DNA came out. Now this lab is very cool because it works for almost any fruit but it works best for Strawberries.

 

During this time we were studying Mitosis and the reason that this ab relates to Mitosis is that Mitosis involves DNA replication and right now we are studying the shape and how DNA gets replicated so this helped a lot.

 

THERE WERE A FEW QUESTIONS ON THE WORKSHEET WHICH I ANSWERED ON THE FILE.

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Mitosis Lab

Mitosis Lab

mitosis-lab

Recently we have had a lab in our Biology class about Mitosis. Recently we have been talking about Cancer because it is caused when there is no restriction point in the cell cycle. Just a few days ago, we had a lab where we observed plant and animal cells during Mitosis and it was fascinating. I have put my Lab sheet above. I have taken a lot of pictures because there were so many different cells so if you want to see them all here is a link.

https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3Ms6kR8LvWZNU1CLVVxckZocVU

I learned a lot from this lab and one of the most important was the difference between plant and animal cells dividing. When I was in 6th grade, I took an earth Science course, in 7th a physics based course and in 8th an introduction to Biology course so I have already studied Mitosis. But one thing that I did not know was that there was a difference between plan and animal cell mitosis. I also thought it was very cool how we were able to see how long each part of mitosis took. In my worksheet I calculated it and that really gave me a better idea of mitosis. I also realized how hard it is to determine which cell is in what phase because between interphase and prophase or between metaphase and anaphase it was hard to tell the difference. I really liked this lab because it gave me better insight into the cell cycle and the different phases of Mitosis.

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Here is a slideshow of 27 different pictures I have taken.

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Most of the details about the experiment will be in the lab sheet.

What is cancer

What is cancer

Cancer is a very deadly disease that has plagued our society. I personally do not know anybody that has cancer for which I am very grateful.

When I heard the statistics:

1 in 2 men and 1 in 3 women will experience cancer in their lifetimes.
Cancer afflicts 1.7 million Americans each year—and kills 600,000 of them.
40% of cancer cases have no known cause at all.
Cancer mortality has been slowly declining — down 20% over the last two decades.
If society were to implement what’s known about prevention, cancer deaths could be reduced by 50%.

I was shocked! I had no idea so many people got cancer every year and so many people died from it.
It made me really sad that we could save a lot of people from cancer if we implement what we know which makes me question why we haven’t yet.

I recently watched a few videos from PBS about Cancer and I have learned a lot.
http://ca.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/8e81e1ad-e720-4550-b350-11ea5656d7b5/what-is-cancer-lesson-plan/

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1. What is Cancer

The first video talked about cancer and what it was. In the video it said that the Cancer is a genetic disease that causes cells to grow uncontrollably. The growth of these cells can cause tumors and can spread cancer cells throughout the body. Cancer is not only one disease but it is a variety of 1100 diseases and cancer can evolve to prevent from getting cured by medicine. Cancer cells lose their ability to communicate and because of this they have uncontrolled growth. Cancer cells gene mutations can cause it to evolve and not be affected by medicine. Cancer cells are free to flow through the bloodstreams.

 

2. Cancer Treatment Today

Cancer will probably never be cured but we might be  to find a way to control it. New technology has evolved to cause scientists to detect cancer earlier to began treatment. Even though Cancer mutates, most of its mutations are insignificant. and that some genes control cancer cells.When scientists learned this, they could develop better ways to combat cancer. I hope that scientists can find a way to cure cancer and save so many peoples lives and stop the disease of our time in India.

 

3. Why is Cancer so difficult to Cure

One way we could easily solve Cancer is to stop smoking tobacco and stay away from radioactive materials. Another way we can help prevent cancer is to have a healthy diet and stay physical. Eating junk food increases the rate of getting cancer.

 

4. Cancer Treatment Today

Cancer cells are different from normal calls because they mutate and reproduce. Because cancer cells spread so much it is very hard to solve the this dangerous disease. Since the DNA stays the same when cancer cells reproduce it continues to replicate. Because the cancer cells spread so much, it is very hard to cure later so it is best to figure it out early.I hope everyone with cancer can figure out they have it early and not hesitate to get rid of it.

 

5. Future of Cancer Treatment

 

Richard Klausner is trying to say how powerful and dangerous cancer is. How over 3 billion years of evolution has lead to a powerful disease like cancer. To solve cancer we need a better more effective method.

 

6. Evolution in a Bottle

We are told that Cancer is a work of progress, but eventually we will find a cure. Scientists are amazed how much they have learned in a year. There have been cycles of learning have been improving. The way of treating cancer has transformed over the last few decades and they will continue to evolve. If cancer evolves than so will we.Scientists are trying to map each individuals patients cancer, and treat each of them personally. They want a much more individualized approach. Doctors can mix the drugs and form the cure to cancer. Combination targeted therapy might not work because cancer is always evolving and adapting. Cancer is evolution in a bottle. 3 billion years have created the diversity and life and cancer.Cancer is all of the history of life.

 

 

 

 

 

Cytoplasmic Streaming

Cytoplasmic Streaming

 

 

 

This week we had our first lab in Biology Honors of the semester. We are currently studying cells and cell theory. In this experiment we got to use a microscope to observe cytoplasmic streaming. Cytoplasmic streaming is when the cytoplasm moves nutrients, proteins and organelles throughout the cell. It was really cool because this was the first time I saw a plant cell in real life.

For this lab report, because we don’t have a formal sheet I decided to show you all the pictures we took and explained it here. I don’t think there is much to explain to observing a plant cell go through cytoplasmic streaming.

We looked at an elodea leaf through a microscope.

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The image I saw was very beautiful and cool but I know that we could not see cytoplasmic streaming from such a distance. The slightly darker green you see around the cells are the cell walls. The big strip of green is a vein in the leaf that distributes nutrients and proteins.

Recently one of our lab partners, Stephan Silva, dropped out of Biology Honors and our partner Nick Snyder wasn’t in class so there were only three people in our lab group.

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For the first two pictures I am not sure what those long rectangles are. They are clearly much bigger than the cells so I my best guess is that they are large micro tubules, veins or an actual organ.

In the third picture you can see a much more close up picture of the cell. You can faintly see the cell wall, but what surprised me was the number of chloroplast. I was unable to spot any other major organelle.

 

Most scientists when observing the cell release a special dye so you can easily see the organelles but we had an unaltered plant. The little green bubbles are actually chloroplasts. It is very cool to see this in real life so I will include all the pictures.

 

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Since it is very hard to add videos to my blog, I will give you a link.

 

 

 

 

Sorry the videos are kind of blurry and zoomed out, but it is hard to shoot a video through the microscope.

 

Now I want to talk about the components of cell theory in this. 

Cell theory

 

  1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
  2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and organization in organisms.
  3. Cells arise from pre-existing cells.

We can relate point one of cell theory to this experiment because we can see how many cells it can take to make up a simple leaf. Since a cell is the basic unit of life, you need at least one cell for a living organism.

We can relate point two to cell theory because we can see that a cell is needed to have structure in an organism. All the veins and organs in the plant are mostly made up of cells and those cells help give the plant structure.

Point 3 is very difficult to do because we have no direct evidence for this. When a plant cell dies, or when a leaf begins to wither and a new leaf grows. All of the cells the plant grows are from pre-existing cells or from nutrients/ cells collected from the soil.

 

 

My thoughts about Biology Honors on 12-9-2016

These next few Blogs will be my journal on Biology honors. This will go through this Friday so for a week. This will consist of 5 Blog Reports.

Well this is the last blog for this assignment. I might continue working on blogs because I have really enjoyed this assignment.

Response:

Introduction

I actually don’t have much to write about today because we have a test but I have a few cool stories. There were also two extra credit assignments today. One was to memorize the Krebs Cycle and the other was to memorize the Calvin Cycle.

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Calvin Cycle

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Krebs Cycle

 

Test

We actually had a test today and I don’t know how well I did. During the day I was reviewing for the Krebs cycle quiz because that was the only quiz I was prepared for. Calvin Cycle was just to daunting for me. Fortunately, the essay question of the test was to draw a diagram for the Krebs cycle which I was ready for. As soon as the test was over I realized there was a poster for the Krebs Cycle right next me, so it was a good thing I didn’t see it earlier. Overall the quiz was not too bad. A lot of things I knew before preparing and I hope I did well. After this I took a quiz on the Krebs Cycle and I think I did pretty well. I have a 94% right now, but there is extra credit that hasn’t been put in. I still have finals so I hope I can do good in this class. Sorry this blog wasn’t too long but I don’t have much to talk about.

 

My thoughts about Biology Honors on 12-8-2016

These next few Blogs will be my journal on Biology honors. This will go through this Friday so for a week. This will consist of 5 Blog Reports.

Here are some of my notes for the class. They were quick notes and most of the words are off

Response:

Review

This time in class, our teacher actually went up to the board and taught. Usually he does a nearpod and because this is different I was surprised. We surprisingly went through the whole review super quickly and learned a lot. I don’t know if if I prefer teaching like this, but I hope it prepares me for the test. We then got some background on Mr. Wong. He told us Chemistry and Physics come easily for him and he wanted to major in Biology because he wasn’t great at it. He also told us that he taught chemistry and physics before but teaching Biology is the hardest. He also told us he could talk about any topic for hours and to be good students.

Science Discussion

 

Since class ended early, we started talking about what science classes we could take next year. He told us we had to take chemistry as a sophomore and he highly recommended taking a physics class. We then talked about math and Mr. Wong wanted us to have a strong foundation of Algebra because it is very important in all sciences. Then we talked about the new freshman. They would take physics as a freshmen, chemistry as a sophomore and Biology as a junior. I like the idea of taking chemistry before biology but I think freshmen should take Chemistry.

My thoughts about Biology Honors on 12-6-2016

These next few Blogs will be my journal on Biology honors. This will go through this Friday so for a week. This will consist of 5 Blog Reports.

Here are some of my notes for the class. They were quick notes and most of the words are off

Response:

Lecture

We went into a near pod on reviewing cellular respiration. At first, we talked about alcohol. We quickly talked about how it is bad for you and your health. We talked about the transition of smoking and before it was considered popular. When we found out that it affects your health people stopped using it. Then we went into a quick review of cellular respiration which I already talked about in my past blogs.

Incident

We then had to do a drawing where we color a Mitochondria and that is when the incident happened. A student scribbled all over the drawing and our teacher Mr. Wong got really mad.  He told us we didn’t have to teach and asked the student to come out and reveal himself. When the student didn’t come out, he moved the test to the next day and he got rid of ll the extra credit opportunities for the whole class. We were all very worried because a lot of us already worked on the extra credit assignments and we really needed it. We wanted whoever did it to come out and confess but nobody did it for a while. Then a student named Sam came out and said he did it. He was very responsible about it and wanted all of us not to suffer for his mistake.